All DNA samples will be analyzed with a widely used patented procedure called the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR is a very sensitive and accurate method to analyze DNA. The paternity test will reveal the true relationship of the alleged father to the child for the following reason: a child receives half of his (her) DNA from his (her) biological mother and half from his (her) biological father. Therefore, the rationale behind paternity testing is to determine whether or not a child has DNA in common with his (her) alleged father. A child who has DNA that is not found in his (her) biological mother and is not found in his (her) alleged father cannot be the child of that man. Unless otherwise indicated, maternity is always assumed to be as stated.What results will I get from a paternity test? A paternity test report will state the technical name for each DNA area that has been tested. Paternity testing at CompGene typically evaluates at least 9 different areas in the DNA. You will receive one of two possible results of your paternity test. The report will either be a 1) negative paternity result (exclusion) which means the alleged father is not the biological father or a 2) positive paternity result (inclusion) which means the alleged father has greater than a 99.99% chance of being the biological father. The reasons for either of these results are explained below. What does a negative paternity result (exclusion) mean? Non-paternity occurs when a child is found to have DNA that is not in his (her) alleged father and is not found in his (her) mother. If this occurs, the alleged father CANNOT be the biological father of the child. This result proves non-paternity without a doubt. There are two important points to understand about a report of non-paternity. First, when we provide a report of non-paternity it will show at least 3 areas of DNA that do not match between the child and the alleged father. The reason for requiring at least 3 non-matching DNA areas is that it is possible that a child might have a change in the DNA (a mutation) he (she) inherited from his (her) biological father. This would make it appear that the child is unrelated to his (her) true father. By requiring at least 3 non-matching DNA areas, the chance of a false non-paternity report due to a naturally occurring mutation is virtually impossible, barring laboratory error. Second, on a report of non-paternity, some DNA areas tested will match between the child and the alleged father. This occurs because all people share some common DNA areas. However, when several DNA areas are compared, non-related individuals will always have some areas that do not match. As explained above, the presence of 3 or more non-matching areas on the paternity test report is proof of non-paternity. What does a positive paternity result (inclusion) mean? At each DNA area are a number of different possible DNA patterns (called alleles). Different people have different alleles. The report will state for each DNA area tested which allele the alleged father and the child share and how common that allele is in the alleged father's ethnic group. When every DNA area tested shows a shared allele between the alleged father and the child, there is a very high chance that the alleged father is the biological father. It is important to appreciate that although a negative paternity result (exclusion) provides absolute exclusion of an alleged father being the biological father, a positive paternity result (inclusion) only provides a high statistical probability that the alleged father is indeed the biological father. All testing at CompGene will provide (except in rare circumstances) a probability of paternity of at least greater than 99.99%. This figure yields a paternity index of > 10,000. This means that there is less than a 1 in 10,000 chance that the alleged father, deemed the biological father by paternity testing, is actually not the biological father. Most courts require a 99% or higher probability of paternity (a paternity index of > 100). How Will I Be Notified of My Results? Test results can be picked up in person or mailed to all tested adults and any representative they have requested on their identification forms. Results can be faxed to a designated medical or legal representative if requested by an authorized individual. No results will ever be given over the phone. May I Call For Information On My Test? Yes. However, the only information we will be able to provide is whether or not your testing has been initiated and or has been completed. As a matter of policy, CompGene representatives who answer the telephone do not have any information about the results of paternity testing. This policy prevents them from inadvertently revealing any confidential information. Only the laboratory personnel actually performing the paternity test know the results and will never give results of a paternity test over the telephone. Paternity testing takes time, and we can only determine the results of the test after completion of all aspects of the testing. We will notify you when the test is complete. Unless you hear from us, assume your test is proceeding properly. If you call, please be ready to provide the same identification information that you presented at the time of blood sample collection. Example Cases The two cases illustrated below show DNA data that either support the statement that the alleged father is not the biological father (exclusion - panel A) or support the statement that the alleged father is the biological father (inclusion - panel B). In case A, an autoradiograph shows a DNA area from the mother, the child and the alleged father, respectively. In the middle lane, the upper DNA area seen in the child is not found either in the mother or in the alleged father. It must have come from another man, the biological father. These results are consistent with exclusion. The alleged father is not the biological father.